The Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) controls the export of dual-use and less sensitive military items through the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), including the Commerce Control List (CCL). As controls on exports of technology are a key component of the effort to protect sensitive U.S. technology, many sensitive technologies are listed on the CCL, often consistent with the lists maintained by the multilateral export control regimes of which the United States is a member. Certain technologies, however, may not yet be listed on the CCL or controlled multilaterally because they are emerging technologies. As such, they have not yet been evaluated for their national security impacts. This advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) seeks public comment on criteria for identifying emerging technologies that are essential to U.S. national security, for example because they have potential conventional weapons, intelligence collection, weapons of mass destruction, or terrorist applications or could provide the United States with a qualitative military or intelligence advantage. Comment on this ANPRM will help inform the interagency process to identify and describe such emerging technologies. This interagency process is anticipated to result in proposed rules for new Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCNs) on the CCL.
To assist BIS in identifying emerging technologies that are essential to the national security of the United States, this ANPRM seeks public comment on criteria for defining and identifying emerging technologies. This ANPRM describes certain categories of technology that are currently subject to the EAR but controlled only to embargoed countries, countries designated as supporters of international terrorism, and restricted end uses or end users. These categories are a representative list of the Start Printed Page 58202technology categories from which Commerce, through an interagency process, seeks to determine whether there are specific emerging technologies that are important to the national security of the United States for which effective controls can be implemented that avoid negatively impacting U.S. leadership in the science, technology, engineering, and manufacturing sectors.
Commerce does not seek to expand jurisdiction over technologies that are not currently subject to the EAR, such as “fundamental research” described in § 734.8 of the EAR. For purposes of this ANPRM, Commerce does not seek to alter existing controls on technology already specifically described in the CCL. Such controls would generally continue to be addressed through multilateral regimes or interagency reviews.
Commerce will issue a separate ANPRM regarding identification of foundational technologies that may be important to U.S. national security. Commerce seeks public comment, however, on treating emerging and foundational technologies as separate types of technology.
Representative Technology Categories
The representative general categories of technology for which Commerce currently seeks to determine whether there are specific emerging technologies that are essential to the national security of the United States include: